The supply and value chain of the world’s only freshwater sardine, Sardinella tawilis endemic to Taal Lake, were studied from January to December 2016. This study aimed to identify the actors in the value chain, evaluate each actor’s value addition, identify the roles of men and women in the chain, and identify the issues, concerns, and entry points for intervention. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and tracer survey interviews were done to gather data. A semi-structured questionnaire was directed to 189 respondents within and outside Taal Lake. The study showed that the tawilis marketing system is limited to the local market. Tawilis is traded fresh and processed. The chain’s key actors include the fishers, fish buyers (wholesaler, retailer, peddlers, and contracted fish buyers), processors, and consumers. The outcome of the value chain analysis of the tawilis industry showed that commercial processors have the highest value-added due to the place, form, and time transformation of the product. Meanwhile, the fishers and small-scale fish buyers have the lowest value-added during lean and peak season, respectively. The tawilis industry provides livelihood to the marginal fisherfolk, which is the first supply chain link. Several strategies were recommended in the form of process, product, function, and overall upgrading to uplift the economic benefit of the different actors in the chain and boost the tawilis industry. These include the improvement on the fishing operations, upgrading of fishing gear and other paraphernalia, provision of training on post-harvest techniques (handling, preservation, processing, value-adding, product development, etc.), market matching strategies, improvement in farm to market road transportation, establishment of fish processing facilities, and access to credit, loans or grants from the national and local governments.